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Recommended products Sale. Schutt Vengeance VTD II football helmet Riddell Speed Icon football helmet Xenith X2E football helmet Its championship game, the Super Bowl , ranks among the most-watched club sporting events in the world.

Other professional leagues exist worldwide, but the sport does not have the international popularity of other American sports like baseball or basketball.

In the United States, American football is referred to as "football". Although it could easily have been called "rugby" at this point, Harvard, one of the primary proponents of the rugby-style game, compromised and did not request the name of the sport be changed to "rugby".

American football evolved from the sports of rugby and soccer. Rugby like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points.

What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, , between Rutgers and Princeton , two college teams.

They consisted of 25 players per team and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, with the objective being to advance it into the opponent's goal.

Rutgers won the game 6—4. Representatives of Yale, Columbia , Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19, , to create a standard set of rules for use by all schools.

Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.

An Harvard—Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two Princeton athletes who were impressed by it. They introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos ".

Yale player Walter Camp , now regarded as the "Father of American Football", [13] [14] secured rule changes in that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum.

The introduction of the snap resulted in an unexpected consequence. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position.

However, a group of Princeton players realized that as the snap was uncontested, they could now hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring.

In , in a game between Yale and Princeton, both teams used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records. Each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0—0 tie.

This "block game" proved extremely unpopular with both teams' spectators and fans. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, and a reversion to the scrum was considered.

However, Camp successfully proposed a rule in that limited each team to three downs , or tackles, to advance the ball 5 yards 4.

Failure to advance the ball the required distance within those three downs would result in control of the ball being forfeited to the other team.

This change effectively made American football a separate sport from rugby, and the resulting five-yard lines added to the field to measure distances made it resemble a gridiron in appearance.

Additionally, tackling below the waist was legalized, [13] and a static line of scrimmage was instituted. Despite these new rules, football remained a violent sport.

Dangerous mass-formations like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths. These proceedings resulted in the formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States, later renamed the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA.

The legal forward pass was introduced in , although its impact was initially minimal due to the restrictions placed on its use.

The idea of a yard-wider field was opposed by Harvard due to the size of the new Harvard Stadium. To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football before the snap.

This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money.

Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not prohibited outright.

Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school.

The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.

This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team.

The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level. The upstart NFL received a boost to its legitimacy in , however, when an NFL team, the Pottsville Maroons , defeated a team of Notre Dame all-stars in an exhibition game.

The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.

This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids.

The rival AFL arose in and challenged the NFL's dominance. The AFL began in relative obscurity but eventually thrived, with an initial television contract with the ABC television network.

The AFL's existence forced the conservative NFL to expand to Dallas and Minnesota in an attempt to destroy the new league.

Meanwhile, the AFL introduced many new features to professional football in the United States: official time was kept on a scoreboard clock rather than on a watch in the referee's pocket, as the NFL did; optional two-point conversions by pass or run after touchdowns; names on the jerseys of players; and several others, including expansion of the role of minority players, actively recruited by the league in contrast to the NFL.

The AFL also signed several star college players who had also been drafted by NFL teams. The bidding war for players ended in when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that took full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.

This championship game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.

College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game was associated with a particular conference and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.

This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.

Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to This was replaced in by the Bowl Alliance , which gave way in to the Bowl Championship Series BCS.

A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each. Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.

Although the sport is played almost exclusively by men, women are eligible to play in high school, college, and professional football.

No woman has ever played in the NFL, but women have played in high school and college football games. The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown.

The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball. An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.

Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense.

Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays. Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.

The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it.

The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays. Halfbacks may also serve as receivers.

Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations [54] and are seldom used in passing situations.

The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.

The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback, [54] but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.

Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.

The defensive line DL consists of defensive ends DE and defensive tackles DT. Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends.

The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles are to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.

Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: middle linebackers MLB and outside linebackers OLB.

Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays. Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.

The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.

Safeties line up between the cornerbacks but farther back in the secondary. Safeties are the last line of defense and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays.

The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball tries to execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffs , while the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them.

Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: the placekicker K or PK , holder H and long snapper LS.

The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.

There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.

The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.

The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground.

Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR —the player who catches the punt.

Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In football, the winner is the team that has scored more points at the end of the game.

There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.

A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the opposing team's end zone.

A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If a PAT is scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, typically called the extra point.

If it is scored by what would normally be a touchdown it is worth two points, typically called the two-point conversion. In general, the extra point is almost always successful while the two-point conversion is a much riskier play with a higher probability of failure; accordingly, extra point attempts are far more common than two-point conversion attempts.

A field goal FG , worth three points, is scored when the ball is placekicked or dropkicked through the uprights and over the crossbars of the defense's goalposts.

A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.

Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known as the end lines and sidelines. Goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.

Weighted pylons are placed the sidelines on the inside corner of the intersections with the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone.

Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1-yard 0. Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4.

A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.

Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards.

Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of the two end lines. The crossbar of these posts is 10 feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright as indicators of wind strength and direction.

The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two halves of 30 minutes and four quarters of 15 minutes.

The visiting team can call either "heads" or "tails"; the winner of the toss chooses whether to receive or kick off the ball or which goal they wish to defend.

They can defer their choice until the second half. Unless the winning team decides to defer, the losing team chooses the option the winning team did not select—to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.

Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game allows the other team to choose which goal to defend.

Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages—the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.

An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official. If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.

The play clock is set 25 seconds after certain administrative stoppages in play and to 40 seconds when play is proceeding without such stoppages.

There are two main ways the offense can advance the ball: running and passing. In a typical play, the center passes the ball backwards and between their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball, or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out-of-bounds or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.

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PL EN. Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki cookie. The players involved in this game were: [4] [6] [7]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Retrieved January 26, Milwaukee Journal. January 16, Retrieved February 2, — via Newspapers. January 15, Retrieved February 2, Giants Winners of Pro Title".

Berkeley Daily Gazette. United Press.

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